Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and their role in breast carcinoma
Infiltration of T lymphocyte cells in tumor tissue is a good prognosis in cancer patients. The infiltrating lymphocyte
(TIL) tumor is the phenotype of CD4+ T lymphocytes and CD8+ T lymphocytes that infiltrate tumors. TIL can have a
beneficial effect as well as a detrimental effect on breast carcinoma. There are three subtypes of T lymphocytes that
infiltrate tumors which are T-helper (Th), T-citotoxic (Tc) and T-regulators (Treg). The role of Th lymphocytes in tumor
immunity can be divided into three phases, that are the initial induction phase, the phase maintaining the Tc response
as an effector and the memory formation phase. Th lymphocytes will secrete cytokines that can stimulate tumor cells
to increase the expression of MHC class I molecules, so that it will further optimize the function of Tc lymphocytic
cytotoxicity which has the most dominant role in cytolytic tumor cells. Treg lymphocytes effectively suppress
antitumor responses from Tc lymphocytes and other immune cells so that they can facilitate tumor development. In
breast carcinoma, Treg lymphocytes have a different influence on each of the cancer subtypes.
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